Recently you have detected them two first cases of fever hemorrhagic of Crimean-Congo (CCHF) registered in Spain and in Europe Western. This fact, the severity of symptoms and the associated mortality, have placed this disease as a health matter.
The General Council of colleges pharmacists, to keep informed and updated professional pharmaceutical, has published the report hemorrhagic fever Crimean-Congo (licensed access).
What is the CCHF?
According to the World Health Organization (who), hemorrhagic fever of Crimean-Congo (CCHF) is a disease caused by a virus (Nairovirus) of the family Bunyaviridae transmitted by ticks. The name of the virus is related to the clinical recognition of the disease to Crimea in 1944 and the first isolation of the virus in Congo in 1956.
There may be transmission between humans in cases of close contact with blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people.
What is geographical distribution in Europe?
In Europe, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), will have reported cases in Albania, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Turkey and the former Union Soviet. In Greece, it was reported the first human case of infection CCHF in the summer of 2008. In the last days is detected them two first cases of CCHF in Spain, duly confirmed, that also were the first reported in Europe Western. They correspond to a person infected in the field by a tick, in the province of Ávila, and nurse who attended this patient, possibly by contagion from contact with biological fluids of the first.
How is the disease?
The duration of the incubation period depends on the mode of transmission of the virus. After the tick bite, the incubation phase is usually one to three days, with a maximum of nine. The incubation period after contact with blood or infected tissue is normally five or six days, with a maximum 13 days documented.
The symptoms begin of form sudden with fever, myalgia, dizziness, pain and stiffness of neck, lumbago, headache, irritation of the eyes and photophobia. There may be nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and sore throat at the beginning, followed by alterations in behavior, and can also appear abdominal pain in the upper right quadrant, with detectable hepatomegaly.
Others signs clinical possible are tachycardia, lymph nodes, and eruption Petechial in the mucous internal, that can give place to other phenomena bleeding more massive. Usually there are signs of hepatitis (which can become necrotic), and very serious patients may suffer a rapid renal deterioration, or sudden hepatic or pulmonary insufficiency after the fifth day of illness. Among the patients who recover, improvement usually begins on the ninth or tenth day after onset of the disease.
Is there a treatment or prophylaxis?
Not have a specific treatment for the disease, so general supportive treatment is used to control the symptoms and maintain vital signs.
It is difficult to prevent or control the infection in animals and ticks, because both the cycle garrapata-animal - tick as the infection of domestic animals tend to go unnoticed. In addition, the species of ticks that can act as a vector are numerous and are widespread. Vaccines for animals and humans is not available.
Must be the most ticks are not infected, and although it were, if you perform a prompt and proper removal of them once they have acceded to the body, it is very likely that they do not transmit infection. On the other hand, it should be recalled that there is no evidence of transmission of the disease between humans during the incubation period, in the absence of symptoms, or not close casual contact.
Documents and links of interest